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Defence Coaching Institute in India: The justice Rohini Commission for sub-categorization of OBCs has got yet another extension. Why has it been felt necessary to create categories within OBCs for reservations, and what has the panel found so far?
Defence Coaching Institute in India: ON WEDNESDAY, the Centre extended the tenure of The Commission to Examine Sub Categorization of Other Backward Classes (OBCS) headed by Justice G Rohini, former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court. The Commission was constituted nearly five years ago, has got 10 extensions so far, and now has until January 31 next year to submit its report.
What is the sub-categorization of OBCs?
The idea is to create sub-categories within the larger group of OBCS for the purpose of reservation. OBCs are granted 27% reservation, in jobs and education under the central government. This has been a legal debate for other reservation categories too: in September last year, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court reopened the debate on the sub-categorization of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for reservations. Defence Coaching Institute in India
For OBCS, the debate arises out of the per caption that only a few affluent communities among the over 2,600 included in the Central List of OBCs have secured a major part of the 27% reservation. The argument for creating sub-categories within OBCS is that it would ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities. Defence Coaching Institute in India
It was to examine this that the Rohini Commission was constituted on October 2, 2017.
What is the Commission’s brief?
It was originally set up with three terms of reference:
- To examine the extent of inequitable, distribution of benefits of reservation among the castes or communities included in the broad category of OBCs with reference to such classes included in the Central List;
- To work out the mechanism, criteria, norms, and parameters in a scientific approach for sub-categorization within such OBCS;
- To take up the exercise of identifying the respective castes or communities or subcastes or synonyms in the Central List of OBCS and classifying them into their respective sub-categories. The fourth term of reference was added on January 22, 2020.
- To study the various entries in the Central List of OBCs and recommend correction of any repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies, and errors of spelling or transcription.
This was added following a letter to the government from the Commission on July 30,
2019, in which it flagged “several ambiguities in the list as it stands now”.
When was it meant to submit its report?
At the time it was set up, the Commission was given 12 weeks to submit its report, but has since been given 10 extensions. Defence Coaching Institute in India
The other member of the Commission is former journalist Jitendra Bajaj, director of the Centre for Policy Studies. In May this year, the government appointed Prof Bajaj the next chairperson of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). Defence Coaching Institute in India
“I am still a member of the Rohini Commission. That is just an honorary position. There is a lot of work to be done,” Bajaj told The Indian Express on Thursday. Defence Coaching Institute in India
In 2021, until August 31, the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) incurred an expenditure of Rs 54.01 lakh on the Commission, according to the NCBC response to an RTI query this week. This includes the salaries of Justice Rohini and Prof Bajaj, salaries of consultant and outsourcing staff, and miscellaneous and hospitality items. In response to an earlier RTI query, the NCBC had said that until December 2020, over Rs 192 crore had been spent on the Commission including salary, consultant fees, and other expenses. Defence Coaching Institute in India
What progress has it made so far? In its letter on July 30, 2019, the Commission wrote that it is ready with the draft report on sub-categorization. Following the new term of reference added on January 22, the Commission began studying the list of communities in the central list.
Among the challenges it has faced, one has been the absence of data for the population of various communities to compare with their representation in jobs and admissions. The Commission wrote to Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Thawar Chand Gehlot on December 12, 2018, requesting an appropriate Budget provision for a proposed all-India survey for an estimate of the caste-wise population of OBCs. But on March 7, 2019 (three days before the Lok Sabha poll schedule was announced), Justice Rohini wrote to Gehlot: “We have now decided not to undertake such survey at this stage.” Defence Coaching Institute in India
On August 31, 2018, then Home Minister Rajnath Singh announced that in Census 2021, data of OBCs will also be collected, but since then the government has been silent on this, whereas groups of OBCS have been demanding enumeration of OBCs in the Census. Defence Coaching Institute in India
What have its findings been so far?
In 2018, the Commission analyzed the data of 1.3 lakh central jobs given under OBC quota over the preceding five years and OBC admissions to central higher education institutions, including universities, IITS, NITS, IIMs, and Al IMS, over the preceding three years. The findings were: 97% of all jobs and educational seats have gone to just 25% of all sub-castes classified as OBCS; 24.95% of these jobs and seats have gone to just 10 OBC communities; 983 OBC communities -37% of the total – have zero representation in jobs and educational institutions; 994 OBC sub-castes have a total representation of only 2.68% in recruitment and admissions.
What is the extent of OBC recruitment in central jobs?
According to data tabled in Parliament by Jitendra Singh, MoS for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, in Rajya Sabha on March 17, the total number of Group A to Group C employees (including safari karma charis) was 5.12 lakh (see table). Of these, 17.70% are SC, 6.72% ST, 20.26% OBC (Other Backward Classes), and 0.02% EWS (Economically Weaker Sections). In Group-A, the highest tier among these, the representation of SCs is just 12.86%, STS 5.64%, and OBCS 16.88%. Reservation for these communities is 15%, 7.5%, and 27% respectively.
These data cover 43 departments and government offices including the Cabinet Secretariat, UPSC, and Election Commission, but excluding the largest central government employers such as Railways and Department of Posts.
Separately, on February 2 in Lok Sabha, Jitendra Singh said that among Secretaries and Special Secretaries, only six belong to SCs and STS, and, “no data regarding OBC is maintained”. On March 31 in Rajya Sabha, he said: “Out of 91 Additional Secretaries, the number of officers belonging to SC/ST and OBC communities is 10 and 4 respectively and out of 245 Joint Secretaries, the number of officers belonging to SC/ST and OBC communities is 26 and 29 respectively in various Ministries/Departments under Central Staffing Scheme.”